C-peptide testing

What is C-peptide? C peptide originates in pancreatic beta cells as a byproduct of enzymatic cleavage of pro-insulin to insulin .C-peptide is a connecting peptide that gets released alongside insulin from the pancreas. While insulin helps usher glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into cells for energy, C-peptide itself has no known function in the body. … Read more

Drug of abuse test in Urine


Drug of abuse tests in urine are commonly conducted to detect the presence of specific drugs or their metabolites in an individual’s system. These tests are often used in various settings, including employment screenings, legal situations, and healthcare settings. The primary types of drug tests for urine include: Principle behind immunoassay tests involves the use … Read more

Nephelometry- Principle,Uses in biochemistry ,limitations, difference between Nephelometry and Turbidometry

Nephelometer for antibodies, proteins detection

Nephelometry is a laboratory technique used to measure the concentration of particles suspended in a liquid, particularly in the field of clinical chemistry and immunology. It is based on the principle of light scattering by particles in a sample, and it provides quantitative information about the amount and size distribution of the particles. In nephelometry, … Read more

Fructosamine assay-utility

Understanding Fructosamine: Fructosamine is generated when glucose reacts with the amino groups of proteins, primarily albumin, in a process known as the Amadori rearrangement. This reaction involves the reversible formation of a Schiff base, followed by a series of rearrangements and stabilization, resulting in the formation of fructosamine. The reaction occurs spontaneously and depends on … Read more

AFP test -tumor marker

AFP test assay is intended for the use as: ▪ An aid in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ▪ An aid in the management of patients with non‑seminomatous germ cell tumors Clinical significance: AFP ( alpha-fetoprotein) is a glycoprotein that is normally produced during gestation by fetal liver yolksac, and the fetal gastrointestinal tract . … Read more


Clinical significance: CA-125 is a large glycoprotein which promotes cancer cell proliferation and inhibits anticancer immune responses. CA-125 is found in high percentage of ovarian tumors of epithelial origin(non mucinous) and can be detected in serum. This test can be used to: Clinical uses: 1. Aids in detection of residual or recurrent ovarian carcinoma in … Read more

AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone)-AMH Lab Testing

Antimullerian hormone (AMH), is a dimeric glycoprotein, a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily which acts on tissue growth and differentiation AMH is produced by Sertoli cells of the testis in males and by ovarian granulosa cells in females. In women AMH levels represent the ovarian follicular pool and could be a useful … Read more

Tumor Markers: A Comprehensive Guide for Students

Introduction: Tumor markers are substances produced by both healthy and cancerous cells in the body. They play a crucial role in the diagnosis, monitoring, and management of various types of cancers. Having a strong understanding of tumor markers is essential to contribute effectively to cancer diagnostics and patient care. In this article, we will explore … Read more

HPLC-Definition, principle uses in clinical diagnostics

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a powerful analytical technique used to separate and identify compounds in a liquid mixture. It is a versatile technique that can be used in a wide variety of applications, including the pharmaceutical industry, environmental analysis, and clinical diagnostics. Principle of HPLC The basic principle of HPLC is the partitioning of … Read more

Enzyme immunoassay-Definition, principle ,types,uses

enzyme immunoassay -plating ELISA

what is Immunoassay? Immunoassay is a biochemical or bioanalytical technique that utilizes the specific binding interactions between antigens and antibodies to detect and quantify the presence of target analytes in complex samples. It is a powerful tool used in various scientific, medical, and diagnostic applications Types of Immunoassays On the basis of the nature of … Read more