Pleural fluid analysis

pleural fluid cytology smear showing metastatic cells of ovarian adenocarcinoma

Pleural fluid analysis aids in identifying the origin of pleural effusion, distinguishing between bacterial, tuberculosis, and viral infections, and facilitating the diagnosis and staging of malignancies. This examination serves as a crucial diagnostic tool for determining the specific underlying cause and guiding appropriate treatment strategies for pleural effusions. Clinical significance: Pleural fluid analysis is a … Read more

Urinary Casts-overview

urinary casts

Dr.patel what are urinary casts? Urinary casts refers to cylindrical or tube-like structures found in the urine upon microscopic examination.These casts are composed of various substances, including proteins, cells, cellular debris, and other materials that are present within the renal tubules. Casts are the only formed elements in urine that have kidney as their sole … Read more

Pus cells in urine microscopy

pus cells in urine

The presence of pus cells in the urine, also known as pyuria, is a sign of infection and inflammation in the urogenital system. Pus cells refers to presence of leukocytes in urine .It is produced by the body’s immune system to fight infection. A normal urine sample will have 0 – 5 WBC’s per HPF. Women … Read more

Nitrite test in urine routine

Introduction The nitrite test in urine is a quick, cost-effective, and indirect method used to detect significant bacteriuria. This test provides a valuable and relatively efficient way to screen for the presence of bacteria in the urinary tract, which can indicate a potential urinary tract infection (UTI) , specifically those caused by Nitrate reducing bacteria. … Read more

Urine leukocyte esterase test


Urine leukocyte esterase also known as WBC esterase is a component of urine analysis indicating presence of leukocytes in urine . Presence of leukocytes in urine is a sign of Urinary tract infection or inflammation. Neutrophils (pus cells) are the most common type of leukocyte present in UTI As neutrophils and other leukocytes are prone … Read more

What is the Sulfosalicylic Acid Test for Proteinuria?

Sulfosalicylic acid test (SSA) is a semiquantitative simple and inexpensive test for detection of protein in urine . It is not as sensitive as other tests for proteinuria, such as the urine dipstick test, but it is more specific. This means that it is less likely to give a false positive result. Presence of abnormal … Read more

Order of blood Draw-CLSI guidelines


The Order of Blood Draw in Phlebotomy Order of blood draw in multiple tube collection CLSI guidelines The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has a guideline on the order of blood draw. The guideline is called GP41: Collection of Diagnostic Venous Blood Specimens. The guideline recommends the following order of draw: Phlebotomy is the … Read more

what is urine cytology?

urine cytology

Urine cytology is a laboratory-based diagnostic test that looks at a sample of your urine under a microscope to see if it contains abnormal cells. The primary objective of this test is to detect abnormal or atypical cells that may indicate the presence of urinary tract infections, inflammatory conditions, or even urinary tract cancers such … Read more

How to perform CSF Examination- Detailed procedure for Physical, chemical,cell counts


What is CSF? Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an ultrafiltrate of plasma contained within the ventricles of the brain and the subarachnoid spaces of the cranium and spine. It performs vital functions, including providing nourishment, waste removal, and protection to the brain . CSF can be tested for the diagnosis of a variety of neurological diseases, … Read more

Understanding the Lab Diagnosis of Brain eating Amoeba (Naegleria fowleri)

Introduction: Naegleria fowleri, commonly referred to as the “brain-eating amoeba,” is a free-living amoeba found in warm freshwater environments. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare disease but is associated with high mortality rates. The infection occurs when Naegleria fowleri enters the CNS through the nasal passages, usually during activities involving freshwater exposure, such as … Read more