Perl’s Staining procedure (PERLS PRUSSIAN BLUE STAIN)

Introduction Perl’s staining, also known as Prussian blue staining, is a specialized histochemical technique widely used in histopathology to detect the presence of iron in biological tissues. This method is particularly valuable in diagnosing various diseases related to iron metabolism, such as hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis. The staining highlights iron deposits, allowing pathologists to visualize and … Read more

zinc testing, plasma zinc test

Zinc is an essential trace mineral, meaning that the body needs it in small amounts but cannot produce it on its own. It plays a pivotal role in numerous biological processes, acting as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes involved in various functions such as metabolism, immune function, DNA synthesis, and wound healing. Additionally, zinc … Read more


A serum lipase test is most commonly ordered to diagnose acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis is a sudden and severe inflammation of the pancreas, a large gland located behind the stomach. serum lipase levels are a vital for diagnosing and monitoring pancreatic disorders. Lipase in diagnosis of pancreatitis Serum amylase and lipase levels are typically elevated … Read more

SCC Cytology, squamous cell carcinoma


MICROSCOPY The smears of squamous cell carcinoma or metastatic Squamous cell carcinoma show clusters and sheets of malignant squamous cells accompanied by mature looking squamous epithelial cells. The cells exhibit marked pleomorphism, hyperchromasia, and irregular nuclear contours. Numerous keratinized and non-keratinized squamous cells are observed. Some cells display prominent nucleoli. The nuclei show irregular chromatin … Read more

Serum Amylase test

Serum amylase test is a blood test that measures the level of amylase in your body. Serum amylase is an easily and rapidly performed test that is commonly used to diagnose and monitor the treatment of pancreatitis or obstruction of the pancreatic duct. Amylase is an essential enzyme that plays a crucial role in the … Read more


Blood ammonia level test measures the amount of ammonia in the blood. Ammonia is a waste product produced by the body during the breakdown of proteins and is normally processed by the liver. The test is often used to evaluate the function of the liver, as the liver is responsible for converting ammonia into a … Read more



Described in 1945 by coombs ,mourant and race, Coombs test, also known as the antiglobulin test, is a laboratory procedure used to detect the presence of antibodies on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). There are two main types of Coombs tests: the Direct Coombs Test (Direct Antiglobulin Test or DAT) and the Indirect … Read more

HS-CRP(High senstivity CRP) TEST

Clinical significance: Hs-CRP also termed CRP cardiac is recognized as independent predictor of  increased  risk of cardiovascular disease and an adjunct to the major risk factor like smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia by American heart association.  hs-CRP was found to be a potential mediator in the association between adiposity and Fatty Liver disease3. CRP is a protein … Read more

CA19-9 tumor marker test

CA 19-9 ( carbohydrate antigen 19‑9 or sialylated Lewis (a) antigen) is a type of mucin, a protein that is found on the surface of cells. CA 19-9 mucin is present in the fetal gastric, intestinal, and pancreatic epithelia, and it can be detected in lower amounts in adult tissues, including the liver, lungs, and pancreas … Read more

Prolactin hormone , reference range, interpretation

Prolactin hormone is synthesized in anterior pituitary gland. prolactin promotes development of mammary gland and support lactation.  High concentrations of prolactin have an inhibiting action on steroidogenesis of the ovaries and secretion of gonadotropins .  Hyperprolactinemia in men and women is cause of fertility disorders. Clinical uses: Determination of Prolactin is done in following conditions … Read more