Blood ammonia level test measures the amount of ammonia in the blood. Ammonia is a waste product produced by the body during the breakdown of proteins and is normally processed by the liver. The test is often used to evaluate the function of the liver, as the liver is responsible for converting ammonia into a … Read more



Described in 1945 by coombs ,mourant and race, Coombs test, also known as the antiglobulin test, is a laboratory procedure used to detect the presence of antibodies on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). There are two main types of Coombs tests: the Direct Coombs Test (Direct Antiglobulin Test or DAT) and the Indirect … Read more

Fructosamine assay-utility

Understanding Fructosamine: Fructosamine is generated when glucose reacts with the amino groups of proteins, primarily albumin, in a process known as the Amadori rearrangement. This reaction involves the reversible formation of a Schiff base, followed by a series of rearrangements and stabilization, resulting in the formation of fructosamine. The reaction occurs spontaneously and depends on … Read more

HS-CRP(High senstivity CRP) TEST

Clinical significance: Hs-CRP also termed CRP cardiac is recognized as independent predictor of  increased  risk of cardiovascular disease and an adjunct to the major risk factor like smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia by American heart association.  hs-CRP was found to be a potential mediator in the association between adiposity and Fatty Liver disease3. CRP is a protein … Read more

AFP test -tumor marker

AFP test assay is intended for the use as: ▪ An aid in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ▪ An aid in the management of patients with non‑seminomatous germ cell tumors Clinical significance: AFP ( alpha-fetoprotein) is a glycoprotein that is normally produced during gestation by fetal liver yolksac, and the fetal gastrointestinal tract . … Read more


Clinical significance: CA-125 is a large glycoprotein which promotes cancer cell proliferation and inhibits anticancer immune responses. CA-125 is found in high percentage of ovarian tumors of epithelial origin(non mucinous) and can be detected in serum. This test can be used to: Clinical uses: 1. Aids in detection of residual or recurrent ovarian carcinoma in … Read more

CA19-9 tumor marker test

CA 19-9 ( carbohydrate antigen 19‑9 or sialylated Lewis (a) antigen) is a type of mucin, a protein that is found on the surface of cells. CA 19-9 mucin is present in the fetal gastric, intestinal, and pancreatic epithelia, and it can be detected in lower amounts in adult tissues, including the liver, lungs, and pancreas … Read more

Prolactin hormone , reference range, interpretation

Prolactin hormone is synthesized in anterior pituitary gland. prolactin promotes development of mammary gland and support lactation.  High concentrations of prolactin have an inhibiting action on steroidogenesis of the ovaries and secretion of gonadotropins .  Hyperprolactinemia in men and women is cause of fertility disorders. Clinical uses: Determination of Prolactin is done in following conditions … Read more


Fecal calprotectin test Fecal calprotectin is a protein that is produced by neutrophils. It is released into the stool when there is inflammation in the intestines. Fecal calprotectin levels can be measured in a stool test to help diagnose and monitor inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other conditions that cause intestinal inflammation. How is fecal … Read more

Myeloperoxidase stain(MPO)-principle ,procedure ,uses

mpo stain positive in Auer rod

In hematology, special stains are used to highlight specific cellular structures, components, or substances within blood and bone marrow samples. These stains provide additional information and aid in the identification of various cell types and abnormalities. Here are some commonly used special stains in hematology Myeloperoxidase stain The MPO stain, also known as Myeloperoxidase stain, … Read more